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and Mediation Center
Sanofi-Aventis v. Domain Guru
Case No. D2005-1359
1. The Parties
The Complainant is Sanofi-Aventis, of Gentilly Cedex, France, represented by Bird & Bird law firm, France.
The Respondent is Domain Guru, of Woodinville, Washington, United States of
2. The Domain Names and Registrar
The disputed domain names:
(the “Domain Names”) are all registered with Go Daddy Software,
Inc., Scottsdale, Arizona, United States of America (the “Registrar”).
3. Procedural History
The Complaint was filed with the WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center (the “Center”) on December 29, 2005. On January 3, 2006, the Center transmitted by email to the Registrar a request for registrar verification in connection with the Domain Names at issue. On January 3, 2006, the Registrar transmitted by email to the Center its verification response. In response to a notification by the Center that the Complaint was administratively deficient, the Complainant filed an amendment to the Complaint on January 13, 2006. The Center verified that the Complaint and the Amendment thereto satisfied the formal requirements of the Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (the “Policy”), the Rules for Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (the “Rules”), and the WIPO Supplemental Rules for Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (the “Supplemental Rules”).
In accordance with the Rules, paragraphs 2(a) and 4(a), the Center formally notified the Respondent of the Complaint, and the proceedings commenced on January 17, 2006. In accordance with the Rules, paragraph 5(a), the due date for Response was February 6, 2006. The Respondent did not submit any response. Accordingly, the Center notified the Respondent’s default on February 7, 2006.
The Center appointed Assen Alexiev as the sole panelist in this matter on February 15, 2006. The Panel finds that it was properly constituted. The Panel has submitted the Statement of Acceptance and Declaration of Impartiality and Independence, as required by the Center to ensure compliance with the Rules, paragraph 7.
In accordance with the Rules, paragraph 11(a), the
language of this administrative proceeding is English, being the language of
the Domain Name Registration Agreement.
4. Factual Background
The Complainant, Sanofi-Aventis, is the third largest pharmaceutical company in the world, formed as a result of the merger of Aventis with Sanofi-Synthйlabo.
The Complainant is the owner of a large number of registrations of the AMBIEN trademark in more than 50 countries. In particular, the Complainant is the owner of the following trademarks:
- AMBIEN, registered in the United States of America on December 7, 1993, registration number 1808770, for goods in Class 5;
- AMBIEN, registered in 29 countries as an International trademark on August 10, 1993, registration number 605762, for goods in Class 5;
- AMBIEN, registered in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland on May 31, 1991, registration number 1466136, for goods in Class 5; and
- AMBIEN, registered in Australia on December 18, 1998, registration number 761307, for goods in Class 5.
The Complainant has registered numerous domain names worldwide containing the AMBIEN trademark, including <ambien.fr>, <ambien.us>, <ambien.co.uk>, <ambien.net> and <ambien.biz>.
The domain names <ambien-buy.info>, <ambien-buy-online.info>, <ambien-cheap.info>,
<ambien-price.info> and <ambien-drug.info> were registered on October 8,
5. Parties’ Contentions
The Complainant has made the following contentions in its Complaint:
i) General factual contentions
Sanofi-Synthйlabo was the second largest pharmaceutical company in France, founded on May 18, 1999, as a result of the merger between Sanofi and Synthйlabo. Sanofi-Synthйlabo’s total worldwide sales for the year 2003 totaled 8,048 million euro, and it spent 1,136 million euro on Research and Development (R&D) during the same year. Employing 33,086 employees worldwide, Sanofi-Synthйlabo had a sales force of 11,601 persons, as well as 6,877 research scientists and support staff, in 14 R&D centers located in France, Hungary, Italy, Spain, England and the United States of America. The stock market capitalization of Sanofi-Synthйlabo was 43,751 million euro.
During the summer of 2004, Sanofi-Synthйlabo acquired the shares of Aventis. On August 20, 2004, Sanofi-Synthйlabo adopted the name Sanofi-Aventis, thus preserving the brand heritage of each of the constituent companies. As of December 31, 2004, Aventis merged into Sanofi-Aventis. The completion of this transaction created the largest pharmaceutical group in Europe and the third largest in the world, with pro forma consolidated sales of 25 billion euro for the year 2002, in its core business and a strong direct presence in all major world markets. The Complainant is now a multinational company present in more than 100 countries across five continents.
The new group benefits from a large portfolio of high-growth drugs, with nine products that individually generated sales of over 500 million euro in 2003. It enjoys firmly established positions in key fast-growth therapeutic fields such as cardiovascular, thrombosis, oncology, diabetes, central nervous system, urology, internal medicine and human vaccines.
As part of its commitment to global healthcare, Sanofi-Synthйlabo marketed therapeutic products developed from its research and a wide range of medicines adapted to local needs throughout the world. Sanofi-Synthйlabo’s field of expertise covered cardiovascular drugs and thrombosis, central nervous system, oncology and internal medicine and its three flagship products were Plavix, Aprovel (Avapro) and Ambien (Stilnox/Myslee). The Complainant’s products are marketed in the United States of America through several commercial channels, and there is a website specifically dedicated to the United States at “www.sanofi-aventis.us.”
AMBIEN is a product manufactured by Sanofi-Aventis for the short-term treatment of Insomnia. This product was launched in the United States in 1993, and in 1994, AMBIEN was considered as the market leader with 27% of total prescriptions. According to a study carried out by IMS health in December 2003, AMBIEN was the leading prescription sleep aid in the United States. The product demonstrated safely and effectively that it treated insomnia intermittently with no evidence of tolerance or dose escalation. In May 2004, a study was presented at the American Psychiatric Association Annual Meeting which evaluated up to five nights of dosing per week, as needed, and emphasized that the improvements in sleep provided by AMBIEN did not diminish over time and that symptoms did not worsen on the days the product was not used. Since 20 to 30 percent of the population suffers from insomnia, and AMBIEN is the leading prescription sleep aid in the United States, there is no doubt that AMBIEN is well-known in North America.
The Complainant has filed many complaints before the Center in relation to domain names containing the trademark AMBIEN. To date, all decisions under the Policy in respect of such domain names have been in favor of the Complainant.
ii) The Domain Names are confusingly similar to the AMBIEN trademarks in which the Complainant has rights
The Domain Names consists of the Complainant’s trademark with the addition of the generic words “buy”, “online”, “drug”, “cheap”, “price” and the gTLD “.info.”
The addition of a generic or a common word to a trademark is not sufficient
to escape the finding of similarity and does not change the overall impression
of the designations as being connected to the Complainant. See Telstra Corporation
Limited v. Peter Lombardo, Marino Sussich and Ray Landers, WIPO
Case No. D2000-1511; PepsiCo Inc. v. PEPSI SRL and EMS COMPUTER INDUSTRY
(a/k/a EMS), WIPO Case No. D2003-0696;
PepsiCo Inc v. Diabetes Home care and DHC Services, WIPO
Case No. D2001-0174; Sony Kabushiki Kaisha (also trading as Sony Corporation)
v. Inja, Kil, WIPO Case No. D2000-1409;
America Online Inc v. Chris Hoffman, WIPO
Case No. D2001-1184. Therefore, the use of generic words in conjunction
with the Complainant’s trademark AMBIEN does not preclude the Domain Names
from being confusingly similar to the trademark. See Lilly Icos LLC v. Jay
Kim, WIPO Case No. D2004-0891, Amazon.com
Inc. v. John Beamer, WIPO Case No. D2002-1005.
The reproduction of the trademark AMBIEN, as the sole distinctive element of the Domain Names, generates confusion, as persons accessing the Domain Names would be bound to think that the Domain Names have a connection with the Complainant.
The addition of the gTLD “.info,” which is required for the registration of the Domain Names, has no distinguishing capacity in the context of domain names.
As a result, there is a high risk of confusion, since a consumer may think that the Domain Names directly refer to the Complainant’s products.
iii) The Respondent has no rights or legitimate interests in respect of the Domain Names
The Complainant has prior rights in the trademark AMBIEN, which precede the Respondent’s registration of the Domain Names. Moreover, the Complainant’s trademark is present in over 50 countries including the United States and is well-known throughout the world.
The disputed Domain Names are used by the Respondent to promote AMBIEN products as well as medical products manufactured by competitors of the Complainant and medical products that directly compete with the AMBIEN products. The websites at the Domain Names propose to Internet users to be directed to other websites through links that contain titles such as “Sleeping without pills,” “Sleep problems? Insomnia?”. Furthermore, some of the Domain Names offer a large number of sleep aids that compete with ambien such as sonata.
In the present case, the Respondent is using the Domain
Names to offer and sell goods that directly compete with the Complainant’s
products. The websites at the Domain Names contain no disclaimer of a relationship
with the trademark owner, or of the fact that the website is an official site
of the Complainant. See Sanofi-aventis v. ClickStream Marketing LLC,
WIPO Case No. D2005-0769.
The Respondent would not have registered the Domain Names if it had not known that AMBIEN was a leading prescription sleep aid.
The Respondent has no legitimate interest in respect of the Domain Names, and has registered them with the intention to divert consumers and to prevent the Complainant from reflecting the mark in corresponding domain names.
Therefore, the Respondent’s use does not satisfy
the test for bona fide use established in prior WIPO UDRP decisions.
See Oki Data Americas, Inc. v. ASD, Inc., WIPO
Case No. D2001-0903. The use of the Domain Names in order to divert consumers
for commercial gain cannot be characterized as a fair use. See Trip.com v.
Daniel Deamone, WIPO Case No. D2001-1066.
iv) The Respondent has registered and used the Domain Names in bad faith
The Respondent has no prior rights in the sign AMBIEN, and has no authorization to use this sign in any form. It is obvious that the Respondent has registered the Domain Names with the knowledge that AMBIEN corresponds to the Complainant’s trademark and products, and certainly that it corresponds to the leading prescription sleep aid in the United States, where the Respondent is located. Thus, the registration of the Domain Names has not been made with a bona fide intention.
There is no doubt that the Respondent, knowing the reputation and goodwill of the AMBIEN product, has registered the Domain Names in order to prevent the Complainant from reflecting the trademark in corresponding domain names. It is an opportunistic act, which seeks to disrupt the Complainant’s business.
The websites at the Domain Names contain links to competitive products such as SONATA or links to portal websites.
Any Internet user who will try to connect to the above mentioned web sites will believe that they are official web sites of the Complainant which offers AMBIEN since the Domain Names include the AMBIEN trademark.
By adding generic words to the Complainant’s trademark which refer to the availability of the product on the Internet, the Respondent makes the Internet user believe websites at the Domain Names are official websites offering the product ambien. This is another relevant element to establish the bad-faith registration of the above mentioned Domain Names.
It emerges from these facts that the registration and use of the Domain Names constitute an opportunistic act done in bad faith.
v) Remedy requested
The Complainant requests that the Domain Names be transferred to the Complainant.
The Respondent did not reply to the Complainant’s
6. Discussion and Findings
Paragraph 4(a) of the Policy provides that, to justify transfer of a domain name, the Complainant must prove each of the following:
(i) that the Domain Name registered by the Respondent is identical or confusingly similar to a trademark or service mark in which the Complainant has rights; and
(ii) that the Respondent has no rights or legitimate interests in respect of the Domain Name; and
(iii) that the Respondent has registered and is using the Domain Name in bad faith.
In this case, the Center has employed the required measures to achieve actual notice of the Complaint to the Respondent, in compliance with Rules, paragraph 2(a), and the Respondent was given a fair opportunity to present its case.
By Rules, paragraph 5(b)(i), it is expected of the Respondent to: “[r]espond specifically to the statements and allegations contained in the complaint and include any and all bases for the Respondent (domain name holder) to retain registration and use of the disputed domain name…”
In the event of a default, under Rules, paragraph (14)(b): “…the Panel shall draw such inferences therefrom as it considers appropriate.”
As stated by the panel in Mary-Lynn Mondich
and American Vintage Wine Biscuits, Inc. v. Shane Brown, doing
business as Big Daddy’s Antiques, WIPO
Case No. D2000-0004: “Here, the potential evidence of good faith registration
and use was in respondent’s control. Respondent’s failure to present
any such evidence or to deny complainant’s allegations allows an inference
that the evidence would not have been favorable to respondent.” As stated
by the panel in Viacom International Inc. v. Ir Suryani, WIPO
Case No. D2001-1443: “Since the Respondent has not submitted any evidence
and has not contested the contentions made by the Complainant, this Panel is
left to render its decision on the basis of the uncontroverted contentions made,
and the evidence supplied, by the Complainant.… In the absence of any
evidence to the contrary submitted by the Respondent, this Panel accepts in
large measure (but not wholly) the submitted evidence and the contended for
factual and legal conclusions as proven by such evidence.”
In this administrative proceeding, the Respondent’s default entitles the Panel to conclude that the Respondent has no arguments or evidence to rebut the assertions of the Complainant. The Panel has to take its decision on the basis of the statements and documents submitted by the Complainant and in accordance with the Policy, the Rules, and any rules and principles of law that it deems applicable.
A. Identical or Confusingly Similar
The Complainant has provided evidence for the registration of its trademark AMBIEN in the United States of America, the United Kingdom, Australia, and many other countries.
Thus, the Complainant has established its rights in the trademark AMBIEN, as required by the Policy, paragraph 4(a)(i). Furthermore, the Complainant has provided information about its activities as one of the global leaders in the pharmaceutical industry, and specifically about the product marketed by it under the trademark AMBIEN. This information is sufficient for the Panel to conclude that AMBIEN is a popular product, and hence the trademark is known among consumers.
It is an established practice to disregard the gTLD “info” for the purposes of the comparison under Policy, paragraph 4(a)(i).
The Domain Names reproduce the trademark AMBIEN in
its entirety. So, in order to decide whether the five Domain Names are confusingly
similar to the trademark AMBIEN, the Panel considered the remaining parts of
the Domain Names. It is common to use hyphens to separate the words in domain
names and to make them easily understood and remembered. This is the case here,
as the parts of the Domain Names divided by hyphens, represent common English
words combined with the word AMBIEN. The word “buy” in the Domain
Name <ambien-buy.info>, the word “cheap” in the Domain Name
<ambien-cheap.info>, the word “price” in the Domain Name <ambien-price.info>,
the words “buy online” in the Domain Name <ambien-buy-online.info>
are all descriptive in their character, as they clearly refer to offering or
selling of a product. Therefore, combined with an element, identical to the
popular trademark AMBIEN, these sequences not only do not render the mentioned
Domain Names different from the trademark, but, rather, make them confusingly
similar to it. Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Co. v. Mark Overbey,
WIPO Case No. D2001-0727. Regarding the
Domain Name <ambien-drug.info>, the word “drug” in it in combination
with the element “ambien”, has only one possible meaning –
that this Domain Name is linked to a site for the pharmaceutical product Ambien,
and thus makes the Domain Name confusingly similar to the trademark of the Complainant.
Therefore, the Complainant has established the first element of the test, required under the Policy, paragraph (4)(a).
B. Rights or Legitimate Interests
The Complainant has contended that the Respondent has no rights or legitimate interests in the Domain Names, stating numerous arguments in this regard.
Thus, the Complainant has established a prima facie case that the Respondent lacks rights or legitimate interests in the Domain Names.
Once the Complainant makes out a prima facie case under Policy, paragraph 4(a)(ii), the burden shifts to the Respondent to rebut the showing by providing evidence that it has rights to or legitimate interests in the Domain Names.
The Respondent, by its default, has chosen not to present to the Panel any allegations or documents in its defence despite its burden under the Rules, paragraph 5(b)(i) and 5(b)(ix), or the consequences that the Panel may extract from the fact of a default (Rules, paragraph 14). If the Respondent had any justification for the registering or using the disputed Domain Names, it could have provided it. In particular, the Respondent has failed to contend that any of the circumstances described in Policy, paragraph 4(c) - or any other circumstance - is present in its favour.
In fact, the only information available about the Respondent is the Whois information, provided by the Registrar, and the content of the websites, associated to the Domain Names.
The Whois information contains no evidence of rights or legitimate interests of the Respondent in the Domain Names, apart from its rights as registrant of the latter. The e-mail address provided as contact information about the Respondent is “nocontactsfound@[email address].” The Panel sees no explanation for the provision of such contact details other than it being an attempt at hiding the identity of the registrant of the Domain Names. If the Respondent had rights or legitimate interests in the Domain Names, it would not hide its identity, unless having a legitimate reason. However, such a reason has not been brought before the Panel, as the Respondent remained silent in this administrative proceeding.
The websites associated to the Domain Names are similar in content. Some of them offer various pharmaceutical and related products to the visitors; others contain information about the product ambien of the Complainant, and contain links to websites that offer various medicines, including the product ambien of the Complainant, and many others, notably the product sonata, which is a competing product for the treatment of insomnia. The statements on the websites clearly show that the Respondent is well aware of the Complainant’s product and trademark and their popularity.
The question is whether such an offering of goods
or services is bona fide under Policy, paragraph 4(c)(i). The answer
to this question depends on the finding whether the use of the disputed Domain
Names in connection with the offering otherwise constitutes bad-faith registration
or use of the Domain Names under Policy, paragraph 4(a)(iii). See, e.g.,
First American Funds, Inc. v. UltSearch, Inc, WIPO
Case No. D2000-1840 (for offering under Policy, paragraph 4(c)(i) to be
considered bona fide, domain name use must be in good faith).
The Panel concludes that the Respondent is not using
the disputed Domain Names in connection with a bona fide offering of
goods or services. It is clear from the record that the Respondent knew at the
time of the registration of the disputed Domain Names that the Complainant had
established rights in the AMBIEN mark. The Complainant has made a substantial
showing that AMBIEN is a popular mark in the United States, and in any event
the mark is clearly distinctive. The Respondent simply has no legitimate interest
in using the AMBIEN mark as part of Domain Names that direct Internet users
to websites where various products of different manufacturers, including products
that compete with the product of the Complainant, are offered for sale. See
Chanel, Inc. v. Cologne Zone, WIPO
Case No. D2000-1809. As noted in Research In Motion Limited v. Dustin
Picov, WIPO Case No. D2001-0492, when
a domain name is so obviously connected with a Complainant and its products,
its very use by a registrant with no connection to the Complainant suggests
“opportunistic bad faith.” Accordingly, the finding by the Panel
regarding the Respondent’s bad-faith registration and use of the disputed
Domain Name precludes a finding that the offering of goods or services by the
Respondent is bona fide. Philip Morris Incorporated v. Alex Tsypkin,
WIPO Case No. D2002-0946; Amphenol
Corporation v. Applied Interconnect, Inc., WIPO
Case No. D2001-0296.
Therefore, as the evidence supports the contentions of the Complainant, the Panel finds that the Respondent has no rights or legitimate interests in the Domain Names.
C. Registered and Used in Bad Faith
The Complainant is widely known as one of the biggest players on the market of pharmaceutical products. The information about its product ambien regarding its prescription, sales and usage in the United States shows that a large proportion of the population there either uses it or may be interested in it as a medication. Therefore, ambien is a popular product, and hence the trademark is known among consumers.
The Whois information about the Respondent shows that it is based in the United States. The websites associated to the Domain Names contain information about the product ambien of the Complainant, reproduce the trademark of the Complainant with an ® symbol, offer different pharmaceutical products, and contain links to other websites where various products are offered, including sonata – a product competing to ambien. The Domain Names were all registered on the same date as different combinations of the Complainant’s trademark and various descriptive terms related to offers or sales of goods.
These facts support a finding that the Respondent had knowledge of the Complainant’s
trademark and its goodwill at the time of registration of the Domain Names,
and that the Respondent’s primary purpose in registering and using the
Domain Names was to attract, for commercial gain, Internet users to these websites,
by creating a likelihood of confusion with the Complainant’s mark as to
the source, sponsorship, affiliation, or endorsement of the websites and the
products on these websites. This constitutes bad-faith registration and use
of the disputed Domain Names under Policy, paragraph 4(b)(iv). Kabushiki
Kaisha Toshiba d/b/a Toshiba Corporation v. Liu Xingdong, WIPO
Case No. D2003-0408.
Moreover, all five Domain Names were registered on the same day, they are all
found to be confusingly similar to the Complainant’s trademark, and the
Respondent is found to have no rights or legitimate interests in the same Domain
Names. Therefore, the Panel finds that the Respondent has engaged in a pattern
of registration of domain names in order to prevent the Complainant from reflecting
its trademark in corresponding domain names, which constitutes bad-faith registration
and use of the Domain Names under the Policy, paragraph 4(b)(ii). See G+J
McCall’s LLC / Rosie O’Donnell / Lucky Charms Entertainment, Inc.
/ Gruner + Jahr Printing & Publishing Co. v. Savior Baby, WIPO
Case No. D2000-1741, Telstra Corporation Limited v. Ozurls,
WIPO Case No. D2001-0046.
Therefore, the Panel concludes that the Complainant has established the third
element of the test under Policy, paragraph 4(a).
For all the foregoing reasons, in accordance with paragraphs 4(i) of the Policy and 15 of the Rules, the Panel orders that the Domain Names:
be transferred to the Complainant.
Dated: March 1, 2006